Argument for Forest Management (1664)
English writer, gardener, and diarist, John Evelyn publishes Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest-Trees, and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesty’s Dominions. . . .To Which is Annexed Pomona, or an Appendix Concerning Fruit-Trees…also Kalendarium Hortense; or Gardeners’ Almanac… . Sylva was a protest against the destruction of England’s forests being carried out...
Invention of Landscape Painting as a Genre,...
Pieter Dircksz van Santvoort, Landscape with Farmhouse and Country Road, 1625 Pieter Molijn, Dunescape with Trees and Wagon, 1626 The term landscape comes from: landshaft — German landshap — Dutch landskip — English lendh2- open land, heath, prairie; skep- to cut, scrape, to hack, form, creation (<“cutting”): shape. The inception of landscape painting coincides with the...
God Created The World, But The Dutch Created...
From the late sixteenth century the united provinces of Holland undertook an extensive land reclamation project—at that time it was the largest land reclamation project ever undertaken in the world. Between 1590 and 1664 More than 110,000 hectares, (425 square miles) of land were reclaimed from the sea and inland lakes by means of a complex system of dikes and drainage. The land area of the...
Invention of Landscape in Northern Europe
Imitator of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Landscape: A River Among Mountains, ca. 1600
Secular Subjects Pave the Way for Landscape
Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Corn Harvest, oil on panel 1565
High Renaissance In Northern Europe, Toward...
Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, oil on panel 1558
High Renaissance Italy—Landscape Continues to Be...
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa (La Gioconda), oil on poplar, between 1503 - 1505
Italian Renaissance and Landscape: Land Seen...
Domenico Ghirlandaio, An Old Man and His Grandson 1480
Landscape in Early Renaissance France
Matteo Giovanetti da Viterbo? Hunting scenes, fresco, (Chambre du Cerf, Papal Palace, Avignon) c.1340-50
Land Imagery In Medieval Manuscripts
Carmina Burana, (full title in Latin: Cantiones profanae cantoribus et choris cantandae comitantibus instrumentis atque imaginibus magicis), parchment folio, The Forest and its Animals, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich, c. 1225-30,
Landscape in Pieces/Medieval Italian Mosaic
Hunting Scene, Mosaic, Palazzo dei Normanii (Palazzo Reale), Palermo 1160
Incunabula - The Earliest Printed Books
a mediaeval scribe The Latin word incunabulum (plural incunabula, and often anglicized as incunable) literally means cradle, and more loosely refers to the infancy, birthplace or origin of something. It is most often used in reference to early printed books, and in this sense an incunabulum is further defined even more specifically as being a book printed using moveable type prior to the year...
Land as Background in Italy
Giotto, The Scrovegni Chapel, Padua, Veneto, Italy 1305 . Ambrogio Lorenzetti, frescos in the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, circa 1338 - 1340
Landscape Painting in China
Chu-jan, Layered Mountains and Dense Woods, 10th century
Papercutting in China
Circa 6th Century CE Paper cutting is the art of cutting designs in paper (black, white, or colored), then gluing them to a contrasting surface or a transparent surface. Paper cutting is intended to be decorative, i.e., a thing with which to adorn something else, not as a free-standing work of art, though today they are of course framed, in much the same way that a painting would be...
The Transition from Papyrus to Parchment
Circa 300 CE By the fourth century, the use of parchment for books was so widespread in the West that we can speak of a general transition from papyrus to parchment in the book-making process. This was of decisive importance for the preservation of literature because only very few papyrus fragments from medieval libraries have survived, since the European climate is inimical to this...
The Invention of Paper
The Birth of Papermaking AD 105 is often cited as the year in which papermaking was invented. In that year, historical records show that the invention of paper was reported to the Chinese Emperor by Ts’ai Lun, an official of the Imperial Court. Recent archaeological investigations, however, place the actual invention of papermaking some 200 years earlier. Ancient paper pieces from the...
Antique Depictions of Natural Scenery
Roman fresco (detail) from the Garden Room of the Casa del Bracciale d’Oro (VI 17, 42) in Pompeii, 50 BCE - 79 CE ____________________________________________________________ Roman fresco (detail) from the Garden Room of the Casa del Bracciale d’Oro (VI 17, 42) in Pompeii, 50 BCE - 79 CE ____________________________________________________________ Roman Fresco,...
Writing on Bamboo and Silk
Circa 250 BCE An example of Lishu, or Clerkly Script, developed by Chinese Bureaucrats to be written with a brush. In China until the end of the Zhou (Chou) Dynasty (256 BCE), through China’s classical period, writing was done with a bamboo pen, with ink of soot, or lampblack upon slips of bamboo or wood, with wood being used mainly for short messages and bamboo for longer messages and for...
Paper in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
Circa 500 BCE Natives of pre-Columbian Mesoamericamanufactured Amatl (Nahuatl: āmatl, Spanish: amate or papel amate) during the first millenium BCE. It is a form of paper made by boiling the inner bark of several species of trees, particularly fig trees (genusFicus) such as F. cotinifolia and F. padifolia. The resulting fibrous material is pounded with a stone to produce a stretchy and...
The Word Bibliography is Derived from a Greek Word...
Circa 3,100 BCE – 3,050 BCE The pith of the papyrus plant was used in Egypt at least as far back as the First dynasty, for boats, mattresses, mats and as a writing surface. The Egyptian word papyrus, meaning “that of the king,” may indicate a Pharonic monopoly in the period. “The English word papyrus derives, via Latin, from Greek πάπυρος papyros. Greek has a second word...
Perhaps the Oldest Map in the World 10,000 BCE
Map-making appears to predate written language. What may be the oldest map in the world, discovered in Ukraine in 1966, may date from about this time. Inscribed on a mammoth tusk, the map was found in Mezhirich, Ukraine. It has been interpreted to show dwellings along a river. http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline/index.php?category=Cartography+%2F+Geography+%2F+Voyages+%2F+Travels ...
Cartocacoethes: Why the World’s Oldest Map Isn’t a...
http://makingmaps.net/2008/10/13/cartocacoethes-why-the-worlds-oldest-map-isnt-a-map/ [cited 6/24/10]
The First Landscape Painting is a Twin Peaked...
By: Angela Grogan-Henehan On the central Anatolian plateau in Turkey, within view of the majestic 10,600 feet tall twin peaked volcano, Hasan Dag, there has been found the remains of an organized and planned Neolithic society. Within the city, among the many pieces of artwork discovered there, is a wall painting unlike any up to that time. The painting in Catal Hoyuk contains no animals or humans...
World's Oldest Map: Spanish Cave Has Landscape...
Archaeologists have discovered what they believe is man’s earliest map, dating from almost 14,000 years ago. By Fiona Govan in Madrid Published: 7:30AM BST 06 Aug 2000 A stone tablet found in a cave in Abauntz in the Navarra region of northern Spain is believed to contain the earliest known representation of a landscape. Engravings on the stone, which measures less than seven inches by...