Argument for Forest Management (1664)

English writer, gardener, and diarist, John Evelyn publishes Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest-Trees, and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesty’s Dominions. .  . .To Which is Annexed Pomona, or an Appendix Concerning Fruit-Trees…also Kalendarium Hortense; or Gardeners’ Almanac… .

Sylva was a protest against the destruction of England’s forests being carried out by her glass factories and iron furnaces. The work was influential in establishing a much-needed program of reforestation in order to provide timber for Britain’s burgeoning navy. This program had a lasting effect on the British economy.

Sylva also bears the distinction of being the first official publication of the Royal Society, which had been permitted to publish in 1662.  The first edition contained two appendixes, “Pomona” and “Kalendarium Hortense”; the second of these was often reprinted separately, and proved to be Evelyn’s most popular work.

Hook & Norman, The Haskell F. Norman Library of Science and Medicine (1991) no. 745.

Cited 11/24/11:

Text:  http://www.historyofinformation.com/index.php?id=2131

Image:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sylva1669.jpg

Tags: landscape

Invention of Landscape Painting as a Genre, Holland, 1590 -1664 and the First European Tradition of Paintings of Land that Did Not Relegate its Depiction to the Background.

Pieter Dircksz van Santvoort, Landscape with Farmhouse and Country Road, 1625

Pieter Molijn, Dunescape with Trees and Wagon, 1626

The term landscape comes from:

     landshaft — German

     landshap — Dutch

     landskip — English 

lendh2- open land, heath, prairie; skep- to cut, scrape, to hack, form, creation (<“cutting”): shape.

The inception of landscape painting coincides with the dates of landscaping.

General Notes: Landscape and Power, Edited by W. J. T. Mitchell, Chicago, 2nd Ed. 2002, pp. 35-76

http://avblivinglandscape.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/adams_1994.pdf

Tags: landscape

God Created The World, But The Dutch Created Holland — Popular Dutch Saying

From the late sixteenth century the united provinces of Holland undertook an extensive land reclamation project—at that time it was the largest land reclamation project ever undertaken in the world. Between 1590 and 1664 More than 110,000 hectares, (425 square miles) of land were reclaimed from the sea and inland lakes by means of a complex system of dikes and drainage. The land area of the province of North Holland alone increased by 52.7 percent during this period.

Ann Jensen Adams, Seventeenth-Century Dutch Landscape Painting, (Quoting H. Blink), 1994

Landscape and Power, Edited by W. J. T. Mitchell, Chicago, 2nd Ed. 2002, pp. 39-40

http://avblivinglandscape.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/adams_1994.pdf

Tags: landscape

Invention of Landscape in Northern Europe

Imitator of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Landscape: A River Among Mountains, ca. 1600

(Source: nationalgallery.org.uk)

Tags: Landscape

Secular Subjects Pave the Way for Landscape

Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Corn Harvest, oil on panel 1565

(Source: Wikipedia)

Tags: Landscape

High Renaissance In Northern Europe, Toward Landscape as a Subject

Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, oil on panel 1558

(Source: Wikipedia)

Tags: Landscape

High Renaissance Italy—Landscape Continues to Be Relegated to the Background

Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa (La Gioconda), oil on poplar, between 1503 - 1505

(Source: Wikipedia)

Tags: Landscape

Italian Renaissance and Landscape: Land Seen Through A Window

Domenico Ghirlandaio, An Old Man and His Grandson 1480

(Source: Flickr / snarfel)

Tags: Landscape

Landscape in Early Renaissance France

Matteo Giovanetti da Viterbo? Hunting scenes, fresco, (Chambre du Cerf, Papal Palace, Avignon) c.1340-50 

(Source: flickr.com)

Tags: Landscape

Land Imagery In Medieval Manuscripts

Carmina Burana, (full title in Latin: Cantiones profanae cantoribus et choris cantandae comitantibus instrumentis atque imaginibus magicis), parchment folio, The Forest and its Animals, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich, c. 1225-30,

(Source: avion.egloos.com)

Tags: Landscape

Landscape in Pieces/Medieval Italian Mosaic

Hunting Scene, Mosaic, Palazzo dei Normanii (Palazzo Reale), Palermo 1160

(Source: allposters.com)

Tags: landscape

Land as Background in Italy

Giotto, The Scrovegni Chapel, Padua, Veneto, Italy 1305

.

 Ambrogio Lorenzetti, frescos in the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, circa 1338 - 1340

Tags: landscape

Landscape Painting in China

Chu-jan, Layered Mountains and Dense Woods, 10th century


Tags: Landscape

Antique Depictions of Natural Scenery

 

Roman fresco (detail) from the Garden Room of the Casa del Bracciale d’Oro (VI 17, 42) in Pompeii, 50 BCE - 79 CE


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Roman fresco (detail) from the Garden Room of the Casa del Bracciale d’Oro (VI 17, 42) in Pompeii, 50 BCE - 79 CE

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 Roman Fresco, Livia Villa, Rome, 30-20 BCE

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Roman Fresco, Livia Villa, Rome, 30-20 BCE

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 Roman Fresco, Livia Villa, Rome, 30-20 BCE

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Roman Fresco, Livia Villa, Rome, 30-20 BCE

Above images:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/

[Cited 6/24/10]


In their 2001 OUP survey of classical art [Classics: A Very Short Introduction], Mary Beard and John Henderson describe [the Villa Livia fresco room] as ‘an impossibly utopian mixture of bright flowers beside laden fruit trees, tidy shrubs before a receding woodland vista, planned garden display within a surround of Italian trees, as if in their natural habitat.’  It is ‘an exercise in blue and green. And a celebration of naturalistic technique … But this is not nature reproduced; instead, a world specially made for us - yet made to do without us. Beyond the balustrade, as no wild birds ever could, these pay not the slightest attention to anyone in the room, impossibly ignoring our proximity. Emblematized by the songbird in its golden cage, art here createsnature, beyond anything you could find in the real world.’


http://some-landscapes.blogspot.com/2010/01/garden-room-at-prima-porta.html

[Cited 6/24/10]

 

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Birth of Iconography and the Western “Point of View”/The 2nd Commandment of the Book of Moses Prohibits Making Naturalistic Images


• Constantine issued an “Edict of Toleration” in 313 and on February 27, 380,  Emperor Theodosius I enacted a law extablishing Christianity as the oficial religion of the Roman Empire. (Orlandis, A Short History of the Catholic Church (1993), preface.)

 

• From at least the 4th century, Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.

(Theodosian Code XVI.i.2, in: Bettenson. Documents of the Christian Church. p. 31.)

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Nash Papyrus


reappraisals have pushed the date of the fragments back to about 150-100 BC


The earliest Hebrew manuscript is the Nash papyrus. There are four fragments, which, when pieced together, give twenty-four lines of a pre-Massoretic text of the Ten Commandments and the shema (Exodus 20:2-17Deuteronomy 5:6-19; 6:4-5). The writing is without vowels and seems palæographically to be not later than the second century. This is the oldest extant Bible manuscript (see Cook, “A Pre-MassoreticBiblical Papyrus” in “Proceed. of the Soc. of Bib. Arch.”, Jan., 1903). It agrees at times with the Septuagint against the Massorah. Another pre-Massoretic text is the Samaritan Pentateuch. The Samaritan recension is probably pre-exilic; it has come down to us free from Massoreticinfluences, is written without vowels and in Samaritan characters.

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09627a.htm

[Cited 6/28/10]


Tags: landscape